Zoogeography of Peruvian bats, with special emphasis on the role of the Andes. American Museum novitates ; no. 2651 Koopman, Karl F. "The known distribution of each of 122 species of bats from Peru is summarized. The Andean mountain chain affects these distributions both as a barrier and as a creator of habitat differentiation. Three main distributional areas are distinguished, the humid Amazonian lowlands (below 1000 m.), the highlands within the Amazonian drainage (above 1000 m.), and the chiefly arid Pacific slopes. Some complications occur in northwestern Peru, where the Pacific slopes (particularly the higher portions) are not arid, there are a few relatively low passes across the Andes, and the upper portions of certain Amazonian tributaries are arid. Instances of ecological (including altitudinal) replacement and specific or subspecific representation between the major ecological zones are discussed" 1978.