Systematics of the New World nectar-feeding bats (Mammalia, Phyllostomidae), based on the morphology of the hyoid and lingual regions. American Museum novitates ; no. 2742 Griffiths, Thomas Alan. "Dissection and histological examination of the hyoid and lingual regions of the New World nectar-feeding bats reveal marked modification of the tongue-retractor musculature (Mm. sternohyoideus, geniohyoideus, hyoglossus, styloglossus, and genioglossus) and modification of the internal and external tongue structure from the conditions found in non-nectar-feeding bats. Use of these derived characters in a cladistic analysis leads to the phylogenetic hypothesis that nectivory evolved twice independently in the family Phyllostomidae. One group of nectar-feding phyllostomids, comprising the genera Lonchophylla, Lionycteris, and Platalina (traditionally considered glossophagines) deserves separate subfamilial status based on the markedly different adaptations for nectivory observed. The other group, comprising the remaining 10 glossophagine genera (Glossophaginae, sensu stricto), plus Phyllonycteris, Erophylla, and perhaps Brachyphylla form a monophyletic group. Within the newly restricted subfamily Glossophaginae there are two major clades. One clade is composed of Glossophaga, Monophyllus, and surprisingly, Lichonycteris. The other is composed of the more derived nectar-feeding genera: Leptonycteris, Anoura, Hylonycteris, Choeroniscus, Choeronycteris, and probably, Scleronycteris and Musonycteris. Interestingly, both karyotypic evidence, and evidence from dental and basicranial studies, can be interpreted to support the phylogeny presented here"--P. 1982.